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巴黎七處地方受到恐怖襲擊,至少127人死亡,法國宣佈進入緊急狀態,伊斯蘭國承認發動襲擊 [復制鏈接]

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只看該作者 15  發表于: 2015-11-14

[平行時空243] 法國槍擊案對「法國模式」的啟示

數月前,筆者應法國外交部邀請到法國考察,其後在本欄寫了一些文章分享,認為法國處理身份認同問題的方法很值得細讀。言猶在耳,法國就發生了嚴重槍擊案,槍手槍殺媒體《查理週刊》員工造成12人死亡,原因被懷疑與該媒體早前諷刺伊斯蘭教先知有關。無論真相為何,這都肯定對處理族群問題的「法國模式」帶來根本挑戰。

所謂「法國模式」與「英國模式」最不同的是,法國希望把所有移民融入本國文化,不但要認同國家,還要享有同一種法式品味,所以更要擺脫原來的身分認同。然而這模式在全球化時代,幾乎註定不可能持久,以下是一籃子原因:

一、 從前「移民」這概念是比較容易非黑即白的,要不完全落地生根、而在他方維持基本生活,幾不可能。但現在資訊科技發達,人口流動便捷,已移居法國的少數族群很難不和其母體維持聯繫,就像不少住在海外的港人反而比住在香港的更緊貼本地時事。假如加上宗教、意識形態等的不同背景,要完全融入法國的動機就更少。法國境內出現「次身份」,對主流身份進行顛覆之餘,那些人卻有能力把主流遊戲玩得好,已不是天方夜談。

二、 「法國模式」一直忽視階級盲點,當權者相信雖然第一代新移民可能居住環境較差,但第二代就已能完全融入社會,認為把新移民標籤為窮人並不公平,而且成功案例有如恆河沙數。問題是,失敗案例同樣也有不少,當第一代新移民居住的地區和外界隔絕,例如在巴黎市郊那些一般法國白人不會去的地方,他們就自然建立起不同於主流的向心力,社區就成為問題溫床。

三、 從前策劃大規模襲擊大多需要一定組織,現在資訊泛濫,獨行者或小規模組織只要懂得利用,就能輕易製造有驚嚇效果的行動;至於有一定規模點的組織只要和境外聯繫,就能製造國際事故。無論多完善的融和政策,都不可能杜絕這類獨行者出現。只要境外極端組織有辦法打動這少數邊緣份子,甚至不需要和他們直接聯繫,只要在網絡弘揚「理念」,也早晚有人為其代勞。

四、 當歐盟內部人口流動毫無關卡,理論上,不少住在法國的人,完全可以是無須接受法國同化政策的「歐盟人」。這為極端組織提供了極好的漏洞,足以抵銷法國一直以來捍衛自身獨特性的努力。一些比利時那樣的歐盟國家,已住了大量歐盟各國人口,再談國家認同已不設實際。法國當然會盡力維持「法國模式」,但那卻是和歐洲一體化的大方向背道而馳的。

無論這次襲擊是多麼獨特,恐怕在可見將來,類似案例不會停止出現,當然兇手不一定來自伊斯蘭世界,同樣也可以來自任何其他背景,因為這正是全球化時代「非傳統安全」的範例。說回來,就是在中國內地,類似案例難道就不會出現?當然不是吧。

沈旭暉 信報財經新聞 2015年1月9日
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只看該作者 16  發表于: 2015-11-14
法國巴黎市中心遭遇恐怖襲擊,巴塔克蘭音樂廳內的民眾慘遭屠殺。事發時正在表演的美國樂隊Eagles of Death Metal成員一度傳出生死未卜,後來證實全部安全,可是有樂隊工作人員至今仍然失蹤,不排除有人遇害。

樂隊代表對美國雜誌《PEOPLE》表示,槍手闖入後所有樂隊成員都成功往安全地點暫避。樂隊代表透露:「無樂隊成員遇害,這是確認的。不過,有多宗未證實的報告指,一名樂隊的工作人員是其中一名死難者。」

樂隊目前正全力追查多位失蹤工作人員的下落。

美國《PEOPLE》/英國《每日郵報》
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只看該作者 17  發表于: 2015-11-14
巴黎周五晚多處地方受到恐怖襲擊,造成至少140人死亡,法國宣佈進入緊急狀態。居法港人簡小姐接受《蘋果》訪問,稱恐襲主要集中在10區及11區,自己居於巴黎10區,距首個受襲地點柬埔寨餐廳很近,爆炸發生前5分鐘左右才回到屋企。在機場工作的她現放大假,餐廳發生爆炸後附近很多警車,她仍想如期出發往德國探親,但去到地鐵站後,等了多班車仍不停站,突然見到大批市民稱快走,因附近再在爆炸,地鐵站亦隨即關閉關燈,她逃離站後,仍嘗試改乘的士,想去巴士站,但多處封路,最終只好回家。

她表示,初時仍不覺驚慌,但回家時見街上無人,看過新聞後才識驚。她已向家人報平安,在當地的港人朋友未有受傷,但有互相通報消息,有共識直至本月26日緊急狀態完結前也不外出,料三餐也會在家吃,因很多餐廳已關門。她稱現時不會離開巴黎。

http://hk.apple.nextmedia.com/realtime/news/20151114/54426866

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只看該作者 18  發表于: 2015-11-14
140死.....
RIP
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只看該作者 19  發表于: 2015-11-14
At least 153 killed
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只看該作者 20  發表于: 2015-11-14
回 羅力亞 的帖子
羅力亞:巴黎周五晚多處地方受到恐怖襲擊,造成至少140人死亡,法國宣佈進入緊急狀態。居法港人簡小姐接受《蘋果》訪問,稱恐襲主要集中在10區及11區,自己居於巴黎10區,距首個受襲地點柬埔寨餐廳很近,爆炸發生前5分鐘左右才回到屋企。在機場工作的她現放大假,餐廳發生爆炸後附近很多警 .. (2015-11-14 12:45) 

有共識直至本月26日緊急狀態完結前也不外出,料三餐也會在家吃,因很多餐廳已關門。她稱現時不會離開巴黎。

屋企邊會有12日乾糧存貨
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只看該作者 21  發表于: 2015-11-14
回 英俊 的帖子
英俊:有共識直至本月26日緊急狀態完結前也不外出,料三餐也會在家吃,因很多餐廳已關門。她稱現時不會離開巴黎。
屋企邊會有12日乾糧存貨[表情] (2015-11-14 12:59) 

外國人未必無
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只看該作者 22  發表于: 2015-11-14
回 英俊 的帖子
英俊:有共識直至本月26日緊急狀態完結前也不外出,料三餐也會在家吃,因很多餐廳已關門。她稱現時不會離開巴黎。
屋企邊會有12日乾糧存貨[表情] (2015-11-14 12:59)

雪櫃所有野加埋的即食麵,我諗我都捱到 12日……

同埋法國 average home size 大過香港三倍,佢地多好多地方儲存食糧,雪櫃又大好多……

[ 此帖被火鳳凰在2015-11-14 13:19重新編輯 ]
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只看該作者 23  發表于: 2015-11-14
風格混合IS及阿蓋德 屠殺具戰術部署

今次巴黎的連環恐襲,目標有巴塔克蘭劇院及法蘭西體育場等大型場館,亦有鬧市區的小型酒吧與咖啡店,連場暴行都經過精心策劃。

雖然暫時未有組織承認責任,但有美國反恐官員透露,今次施襲方式同時見到阿蓋德及極端組織「伊斯蘭國」(IS)的影子,前者的襲擊往往重於釀成重大死傷,令襲擊備受關注,後者則專注於規模較小但講求戰術的部署。

美國有線新聞網絡

http://hk.apple.nextmedia.com/realtime/international/20151114/54427036

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只看該作者 24  發表于: 2015-11-14
巴黎恐襲震驚全球,旅遊業議會總幹事董耀中表示,目前巴黎約有11至12個本港旅行團,涉200至300名旅客。但他指有關旅行團多是歐洲團,巴黎只是其中一個停留的旅遊點,再到其他國家,估難以統一估計旅行團數目。他指旅議會已跟旅行社聯絡,暫時沒有收到求助,「暫時冇問題,所有人都好安全,喺酒店休息」。

至於保安局應否提高法國的外遊警示,他指要交由政府決定,「因為政府可能會從佢哋政治因素考慮,或者有其他理由,我哋真係唔知」。但他認為,巴黎只是很多歐洲旅行團其中一個旅遊點,可以調動行程,影響不大,「睇政府點決定」。

康泰旅行社企業傳訊部表示,現有一團15人的旅遊團在巴黎,全部人安全,會繼續行程,下周返港。而未來仍有數團前往巴黎,將密切留意當地情況。美麗華旅遊現時則有5個旅行團在巴黎,而當地主要的旅遊景點仍開放,暫時未來數日出發的歐洲團未受影響。

http://hk.apple.nextmedia.com/realtime/news/20151114/54427265
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只看該作者 25  發表于: 2015-11-14
回 火鳳凰 的帖子
火鳳凰:
雪櫃所有野加埋的即食麵,我諗我都捱到 12日…… [表情]
同埋法國 average home size 大過香港三倍,佢地多好多地方儲存食糧,雪櫃又大好多…… [表情]
.......


我係澳洲個時多數一次過入1-2星期貨,因為bulk purchase先平......
同埋鬼老會入更多分分鐘1-2個月貨
一來夠地方儲糧,二來有d可能住山卡la地方要一次過補充
三來有meh事好似水災/旱災都頂到一陣
外國地方大, 消防員救你都未必即時黎到
lum一棵樹已經可以好煩
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只看該作者 26  發表于: 2015-11-14
法國巴黎周五發生恐怖襲擊,造成至少127人死亡。法國總統奧朗德表示,襲擊是由極端組織「伊斯蘭國」(IS)發動,斥責襲擊是「戰爭行為」,指襲擊是在海外策劃,法國全國為死難者哀悼3天。

另一方面,IS的宣傳部門,剛上載一條沒有註明日期的片段,稱法國若不停止空襲,就會繼續攻擊法國。

片段由「伊斯蘭國」的喉舌生命媒體中心(al-Hayat Media Centre)發放,稱法國若不停止空襲,將會永無寧日,恐嚇稱法國人將會連到街市也會感到恐懼,又呼籲無法赴敘利亞的伊斯蘭教徒,在法國發動聖戰及襲擊。

路透社/TVC News

[ 此帖被羅力亞在2015-11-14 19:00重新編輯 ]
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只看該作者 27  發表于: 2015-11-14
IS militant group officially claims responsibility for #ParisAttacks, in written statement posted online http://bbc.in/1NwgKo3
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只看該作者 28  發表于: 2015-11-14


英國倫敦第二大的格域(Gatwick)機場北面大樓周六早上緊急疏散乘客,警方事後證實拘捕一名男子,及正調查一個「可疑物件」。

機場在官方Twitter公佈,「為了預防事故,機場北面大樓已疏散乘客。」

警方表示「一名男子將一個物件丟棄在機場」,於是拘捕他。

德新社/英國《每日電訊報》
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只看該作者 29  發表于: 2015-11-14
Paris attacks: French President Francois Hollande vows to strike back at Islamic State

http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/world/paris-attacks-french-president-francois-hollande-vows-to-strike-back-at-islamic-state/story-fni0xs63-1227609400299

FRENCH President Francois Hollande has declared war on Islamic State as the terror group officially claims responsibility for the bloody attacks at six different sites of Paris, slaughtering at least 128 people.

France is in severe shock at the carnage that has ripped apart its capital city’s soul on a busy Friday night when eight Islamic terrorists armed with guns and explosives launched the deadly attacks.

The French newspaper Libération reports that one of the terrorists who carried out the Bataclan shooting has been confirmed as a French extremist who was known to police.

It also reports that an Egyptian passport was found on one of the attackers the Stade de France, as well as a Syrian passport. Neither man has had their identity confirmed by officials.

Mr Hollande was visibly outraged at the atrocities that have claimed 127 lives and left hundreds injured, many seriously and he called for all French citizens to be courageous.

As hundreds of mourners laid flowers at the site of the seven attacks, including the Bataclan music hall, Mr Hollande announced three official days of mourning.

He said the state of emergency, implemented in the hours after the attacks would stay in place and border checks would be maintained at all borders.

Mr Hollande said the attacks were planned outside of France and against France, particularly against the values of freedom.

What happened yesterday was an act of war,’’ he said. “And faced with war a country must make the appropriate decisions.

“This was committed by Daesh against France, against the values we defend throughout the world, against the country we are. It is an act of war prepared and organised and planned from outside. It is absolutely barbaric. The families are in distress and pain and the country is also suffering.’’

Mr Hollande then went to the Bataclan concert hall, the scene of the deadliest atrocity and insisted his government would mount a merciless fight against terrorism.

British Prime Minister David Cameron warned his nation to brace for casualties from the attacks in Paris, but he has left the nation’s terror alert warning unchanged.

The British leader says the country “must be prepared for a number of British casualties” from the Paris atrocity. He condemned the “brutal and callous murderers”.

Mr Cameron said that the terror threat level in the UK would remain at “severe,” - the second-highest level - but that authorities would review plans amid an “evolving” threat from Islamic state.

ISIS CLAIMS ATTACKS AS THEIR WORK

The Islamic State jihadist group claimed the attacks in Paris in a statement posted online on Saturday.

It said “eight brothers wearing explosive belts and carrying assault rifles” conducted a “blessed attack on ... Crusader France.”

FINDING THOSE RESPONSIBLE

Mr Hollande said that the Islamic State militant group orchestrated the worst attacks seen in France since WWII and he vowed to strike back.

The multiple attacks across the city late Friday were “an act of war... committed by a terrorist army, the Islamic State, against France, against... what we are, a free country,” Mr Hollande said.

He declared three days of national mourning and put the nation’s security at its highest level.

German media reported that a 51-year-old man arrested last week after weapons were discovered in his car has been linked to the Paris attacks.

A spokesman for Bavarian state police confirmed that firearms, explosives and hand grenades had been found when undercover police stopped the suspect near the German-Austrian border on November five.

“He has refused to say what he planned to do or where the weapons came from,” Ludwig Waldinger told The Associated Press. “We are providing no further information at this point.”

Public broadcaster Bayrischer Rundfunk reported that German authorities contacted French officials shortly after the arrest. Citing unnamed investigators, the broadcaster reported that documents found during the arrest indicated that the man was traveling to Paris.

Bayrischer Rundfunk reported that the arms, which it said included an automatic rifle and one kilogram of TNT, were professionally hidden inside the body of the car, a VW Golf.

AS IT HAPPENED

More than 100 people including four police lost their lives inside the hall when three of the terrorists detonated their suicide vests. A fourth was killed by police. Witnesses described how the terrorists were yelling ‘Allah Akhbar’ inside the Bataclan.

After hours of uncertainty police confirmed eight terrorists have been killed, seven of them by detonating suicide vests packed with explosives.

The bloody Friday 13th attack on Paris began when four of the gunmen opened fire on a Cambodian restaurant in the popular 10th arondissement before moving to other nearby streets and mowing down diners and pedestrians. They then moved inside the Bataclan concert hall, which is just 200m from the offices of Charlie Hebdo, the scene of the grisly terror attack in January this year, and began firing upon the crowd with AK-47 assault weapons.

After a wave of panic and rush to the stage, about 60 terrified concert goers climbed over the roof of the Bataclan concert hall and were hauled to safety one by one in an adjacent apartment, while others hid inside the false ceiling of the toilets.

At the same time, another group of three terrorists were outside the Stade de France, packed with 80,000 fans watching a friendly football match between France and Germany and attended by the Mr Hollande and other politicians.

Huge explosions were heard inside the stadium when two of the suicide bombers detonated their vests but the game continued as police grappled with the situation outside and Mr Hollande was whisked away to the Elysee Palace to chair an emergency security meeting. Three hours after the bombings the German national team was still being held inside the stadium.

French radio station Europe 1 had a reporter inside the crowded Bataclan concert hall watching the American band Eagles of Death Metal when the attack began.

Pierre Janaszak said he thought the first shots were part of the act ‘’but we quickly understood, they were just firing into the crowd’’.

He said: “two or three individuals came in not wearing masks armed with Kalashnikov type automatic weapons and started shooting blindly into the crowd. The attack lasted 10 or 15 minutes, it was extremely violent and there was a wave of panic. Everybody ran towards the stage, there were scenes of trampling.’’

Of enormous concern was the ability of the gunmen to reload on multiple occasions.

‘’The reporter said: The attackers had all the time to reload at least three times, there weren’t masked and they were in charge. They were very young.’

Police chief Michel Cadot told reporters: “The terrorists, the murderers raked several cafe terraces with machinegun fire before entering Bataclan (a concert hall). There were many victims in terrible, atrocious conditions in several places.’’
[ 此帖被ODIN在2015-11-14 23:30重新編輯 ]